The Internet of Things (IoT) can provide online monitoring systems for substations, and can provide more reliable maintenance strategies for power equipment, but it is difficult and expensive to energize sensors around substations and high-voltage equipment. If the monitoring sensor can be self-sustained, the cost of use can be significantly reduced. In this paper, a self-contained wireless sensor monitoring system based on energy harvesting and energy wireless transmission is studied. In order to optimize the performance of the system, two sensor energy supply technologies are proposed and analyzed, aiming to supply power to the monitoring sensors in a wireless manner. In order to optimize the performance of the system, two sensor energy supply technologies are proposed and analyzed, and is intended to supply power to the monitoring sensor in wireless mode. By optimizing system parameters, self-maintaining wireless sensor monitoring networks can be successfully implemented in simulation, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified.